Friday, May 22, 2020
Taking English 1302 with Texas Tech University has been a highly rewarding experience. This class focuses on literature reviews and researched arguments, but when I signed up for this class I did not know the difference between the two. Now I know that literature reviews use sources to inform the reader about current studies on a topic, while researched arguments use sources to support the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s claim and persuade the reader. During this class I have learned how to write a literature review/ researched argument as well as many mechanics related to general writing. In English 1302, I was instructed on how to write a literature review and a researched argument. While I found literature reviews to be easier than researched arguments, I still learned how to synthesize sources and their respective information. I realized that I did not need to put in much of my own commentary compared to an argumentative paper. Initially, I could not see how subtopics and themes could connect se veral pieces of writing just as much as the subject of the paper could. I also used to focus on the authors of sources rather than the connected information written by the authors, but now I focus on the latter. Taking this course made me realize that I had never used common ground while writing an argument, but it is very critical for persuasion. For example, in my researched argument I wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ you, as a consumer, have been affected by robotics in more ways than you know; robots aid humans in manyShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesOrganizational Behavior This page intentionally left blank Organizational Behavior EDITION 15 Stephen P. Robbins Ã¢â¬âSan Diego State University Timothy A. Judge Ã¢â¬âUniversity of Notre Dame i3iEi35Bj! Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Director of Editorial Services:Read More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words Ã |Ã 1422 PagesIntroduction to Statistics and Data Analysis This page intentionally left blank Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis Third Edition Roxy Peck California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Chris Olsen George Washington High School, Cedar Rapids, IA Jay Devore California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Australia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Brazil Ã¢â¬ ¢ Canada Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mexico Ã¢â¬ ¢ Singapore Ã¢â¬ ¢ Spain Ã¢â¬ ¢ United Kingdom Ã¢â¬ ¢ United States Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis, Third Edition Roxy
Friday, May 8, 2020
Charles F. Glassman once said, Ã¢â¬Å"In a few seconds, we judge another person and think we know them. When, the person weÃ¢â¬â¢ve lived with the longest, we still donÃ¢â¬â¢t know very well- ourselves.Ã¢â¬ Writing about my values has gave me a better understanding of who I am. I now understand the several ways my culture has shaped me to become who I am. My cultural autobiography will allow me to reveal who I truly am by understanding my cultural identity. My cultural identity is the combination of my worldview and values as well as my position in the eight microcultures. My worldview is that I get what I give. I believe I only get out what I put in. As a result, I try to put forth my best effort in everything that I do. My top values areÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I understand I am not dominant in the religion microculture but till this day it has had little to no effect on my cultural identity. My position in some microcultures challenges or frustrates me. The three microcultures in which I feel challenged or frustrated are race/ethnicity, gender, and age. I am not dominant in the race/ ethnicity microculture therefore it challenges me. Being a female with colored skin had brought many challenges along my life. For example, one evening at work a co worker was trying to turn off the lights of the building and she accidentally turned off a switch which wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t ours. I immediately turned the switch back on and went to apologize to the lady because my co worker was to scarred. As I tried to apologize the white lady immediately cu t me off and started to yell at me because I had ruined her machine. This lady yelled and humiliated me in front of everyone. She believed the reason why we had turned her switch off was because we couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t read English. The lady clearly did not know anything about me because if she did she would have known I started school when I was three where I was taught how to read and write. But because all she could see was my brown skin she assumed I was simply an illiterate Mexican. Having brown skin and not being a citizen in the United States has not been easy. People donÃ¢â¬â¢t treat me the same way they would treat a young white female. Being in the subordinate groupShow MoreRelatedMy Identity And Cultural Identity1870 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesI currently am a 20-year-old African-American male that has been through a lot to be where I am today. I grew up in a predominantly white town, because my parents wanted me to grow up in a school where I would not only be smart and success ful, but safe. My parents doing that to me young was probably the best thing and worst thing that could have happened to me. Growing up in a white suburb certainly has its flaws, but I have learned that flaws can be turned into positives that can benefit myselfRead MoreMy Cultural Identity1040 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCultural identity is defined as a sense of feeling or belonging to one group, or even multiple groups. Different people define themselves differently from the person sitting next to them. I, on the other hand, think that my cultural identity is abstract. I think that this is because I enjoy a variety of different activities including swimming competitively, singing in a choir, sometimes going to school, and reading whenever I get the chance. Sometimes it is hard to find time to read because of myRead MoreMy Cultural Identity1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmay look a typical Starbucks loving white girl to people but I am more than that, Culturally and ethnically. My cultural id entity is defined by the community which I reside in and the people that belong to it. I am seen differently in the different places I have been to. I am seen very differently here in Hawaii where I live compared to in Japan or on the continental US. Cultural identity to me is a vast term used by every individual to define their own culture. I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t really thought about howRead MoreMy Cultural Identity1007 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesI am Zaka Hashmat Siddiqi and I am Asian belong from Middle Asia. I am Muslim and my religion is Islam. I am from Pakistan, Sind, Karachi by the specific area from Shah Faisal Colony no. 2. The main values, norms, and traditions that I belongs to Asian typical culture more into strict rules and regulation such as respect our religion and follow all the important instructions that I learned from my family, friends and teachers. Many Asian people follow their norms by which they belongs but many ofRead MoreMy Culture, Identity, And Cultural Identity85 2 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthink of the word Ã¢â¬Å"cultural identityÃ¢â¬ , I think of myself, and what makes up who I am as a person. My cultural identity influences everything about me, from the moment I wake up, to the minute I rest my head on my pillow at night. My culture influences the way I eat, speak, worship, and interact with people. However, I am not only affected by my own culture, but othersÃ¢â¬â¢ culture as well. I am fortunate to have an extremely rich heritage, and I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be prouder of my cultural identity. The first, andRead MoreMy Cultural Identity2280 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages My cultural identity, as I know is Mexican American because both my parents are born in Mexico and I was born here. I can also be defined as a Chicana because that is another way used to call a Mexican American. My culture can be seen in so many different ways like for example it can be seen in food, music, religion, dance, art, festivals, and even more. Most of these traditions have changed a little bit over time as they were brought to the U.S. What I mean by that is that some of those traditionsRead MoreIdentity Essay : My Cultural Identity794 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCulture Identity is part of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s self-conception and self-perception. It is equivalent to nationality , religion , ethnicity , social class and different generations. When it comes to cultural identity it has to do with you individually or socially . Socially or individually, oneÃ¢â¬â¢s culture defines who they are as an individ ual person . My culture identity is composed of several different aspects of my life like the way I dress , my personality, and my family traditions. To begin with , theRead MoreIdentity Essay : My Cultural Identity1393 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMy Cultural Identity My cultural identity stems from my countless brave ancestors that made the journey to the United States many eons ago. Since then, every generation has impacted our original customs. As the years passed on, so did behaviors and other tendencies. These have eventually made their way throughout the entire family tree and down to my generation. Now, as a social work student, I am forced to face these behaviors head on and even challenge them. Two Stories of ImmigrationRead MoreMy Cultural Identity : My Culture Identity729 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMy Culture Identity Ã¢â¬Å" I am a feminist, and what that means to me is much the same as the meaning of the fact I am black: It means that I must . . . respect myself as though my very life depends upon self-love and self-respect.Ã¢â¬ - June Jordan. As life goes on I am learning that we do not always get what we want. In my English class, we read two passages; one was a novel called Ã¢â¬Å" Two Kinds Ã¢â¬ by Amy Tan and the other was a poem called Ã¢â¬Å" Legal Alien Ã¢â¬Å" by Pat Mora. The text Ã¢â¬Å" Two Kinds Ã¢â¬Å" is about the conflictRead MoreMy Cultural Identity : Hawaii Essay1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesimmediately think about my Japanese and Filipino lineage. I also think about Hawaii, and how growing up there has shaped me today. This are only parts of the equation to my cultural identity. No matter what nationality or country you grow up in, each person is exposed to different ideals that mix in with their background culture. I would like to look at my cultural identity by looking at some traditions in Hawaii, the organizations IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been a part of, and my own unique personal identity. Each of these has
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
I last went to the High School of Science Technology. One of the changes they have made is the reinforcement of rules, having more safety within the students. Another change is the organization by providing counselors for specific and newly created departments. We will write a custom essay sample on Three Changes of My Old School or any similar topic only for you Order Now Also they are providing more time to students specially seniors who have planned to go to college. One of the changes they have made is the reinforcement of rules, they been having more safety within the students.Before I left there were rules nut they were never reinforce as much as this new year because they have had difficult situations in the past. After the past situations one of the ways they reinforce the rules is by giving out warnings to students the first time they commit an offense. If the students behavior continues they would have meetings with parents and counselors which helps a lot because they can work out any kind of problem they student is having. Because of this meeting students can get help for them, as well it helps teachers and other student s to concentrate better in their classes.Another change they made is the organization by providing counselors for specific and newly created departments. The school created a group for students who have lost family members or close friends. They used to do it once a month and every time people would go they would express themselves but there was lack of organization with the stuff they were going to be discussed during the meeting. This year they have prevented themselves with this situation when they see that students are going out of topic they stop and come back to what is supposed to be discussing during the meeting.Now meetings go in session every other week and they do two sections a day this way they divide the students in two groups and have a little more time for each one. Finally they are providing more time to students specially seniors who have planned to go to college. Many students that graduated last year had problems with counselors because they would never have the time to meet with students and help them out with the preparation of college.Also applications to college were being sent late and some students could not get into the college they wanted. This year they are trying to keep on time applicatio ns for college and scholarships that way students wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get frustrated and just looking to be successful in life. In summary reinforcing the rules, having better organization, and providing more time to students is a good beginning of a better school. These changes are the most important things that are outstanding in order to have a successful school. How to cite Three Changes of My Old School, Papers
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Semiotics is a tool that is used to assist in the decision-making process. It enables prior comprehension of messages especially in advertisement through the readings allowing one to grasp the decoding consumed by the target group. Semiotic reveals the polysemic nature of signs; it creates several implications in the recipients mind.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Media Power and Post Modernity specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through semiotics, one can determine what red symbolizes as a color, for example, it may convey danger or blood, or fervor. This means that semiotics reveals the distinct concept of something which can create dissonant reaction on the message received. In advertisement context, semiotics method is more interesting since it facilitates or provokes consumer reaction when watching an advert. It, therefore, anticipates and establishes the jeopardy in a company. This paper mainly analyzes two p rint advertisements of similar products using semiotic methods while taking into consideration whether the advertisements creates similar or different mythic meanings. Semiotics study focuses on signs, sign systems and their resultant meanings. People use this technique to decode images. This method has become popular in the advertisement industry with usages of images. Images or signs bring an idea or ideas to the audience (Kennedy 1974, p. 102). These combinations of ideas enable the audience to make sense of what is happening. These signs and symbols give the advertiser an opportunity to put their messages across to the audience (Hervey 1982, p. 110). We have noticed that advertisements have got no physical representations of products. Instead, they offer an icon sign of what the product itself represents.Advertising Looking for essay on advertising? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, any semiotic study of a print a dvertisement should centre on photographic imagery and the manner in which those images will give the viewers connoted ideas. Thus, representation of this manner enhances the real productÃ¢â¬â¢s image (Sless 1986, 98). Signs exist in different types. There is an icon which is similar to a photograph. It creates a mental image to the viewers. Another sign is an index. This enables viewers to see and think of other things. Then there is a sign known as a symbol. This represents the same thing the sign symbolises. Signs enable us to derive meanings when we put them in a logical sequence. The above types of signs enable people to understand written and technical narratives in an image. Hence people will be able to make different interpretations on the advert by depicting their own perceptual codes and cultural ideals. The relationship linking signifier and signified is usually cupreous and its implication is usually fixed on literal values based on post modern theory. This, therefore, means that any text or advert can be interpreted in endless ways. Linguistic elements have the potential to hinder and at the same time fasten the readings/interpretation of an image or an advert to give the target group a fixed idea. I have decided to analyze two magazines from architecture/fashion/design. These two magazines depict how context and codes within classes, social relations, structure, institutions and groups perform a major purpose in the formation of meaning. Social structures have greatly reinforced meaning. Much of our knowledge about the world we have obtained from magazines, newspapers, books, television, radio and cinema. This, therefore, means that people live through texts and are structured by texts. Social beliefs are normally enforced by intertexuality but the degree is analyzed by semiotics and how open an advert is plus the target group.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Media Power and Post Modernity specifically for you f or only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The first advert is for a company in Sweden marketing Volvo car. The main signifiers are the colour of the photo which is large in size and attractive background with a designer house. There is a young gorgeous woman beside the car with a winter coat which is white in colour but having a fur-collar. She is also putting on a short red skirt. The mode of dressing of the lady brings out her confidence and stunt power. Beside the woman there is a young man who is dressed in a dark blue suit and a red trouser similar to that of the woman. His mode of dressing brings out his passive and elegant nature. There is another young man in the opening dressed in black suit and a sixpence and he is standing close to the lady. However, the only visible part of the body of this man is the shoulder part to the head. The Volvo car is right next to the two men and the woman. There is a written text on the top of the photo with the name and model of the car. The possible signified in this advert are: they are trying to show that old fashioned cars still has elegance and one can easily feel confident around them. The sixpence signifies working men while the Volvo shows that they are still the safest and most expensive cars in the world. The mode of dressing of the men also signifies that Volvo PV 544 is perfect for working class men. Therefore we can say that the major signifiers in the advert connotate in an aristocracy manner with the couple. There is a passive position of the husband and the standing servant on the other side of the car. The direct connotation that is evident here is to generalise dissipation of nobility. One can connotate it as a love-triangle truism which resemble Lady Chatterley lover in a way. The written text on top of the people in the advert is similar to that of the 30Ã¢â¬â¢s and 40Ã¢â¬â¢s. The natural meaning of the scenario in the advert brings out the ironic element of the love-triangle. The advert is, however, somehow complex and humorous in a way bringing out the satire in the Scandinavian notion on the meaning.Advertising Looking for essay on advertising? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that the intended target group must be keen not to miss the concept addressed in the advert. This is because of the love triangle scenario. Despite of it all, the car is still beautiful and sophisticated and is exclusively made for those who can afford it. It, however, brings out the humour in the aristocracy without eliminating the fundamental nature of glamour and style brought out by the car. The sophisticated nature of the car is still evident and is very elaborate. Those who created the advert must have twisted it and made it a little bit complex due to the type of audience they were targeting. This type of advert has clearly shown that the main purpose of an advert is not the message but the meaning communicated and the relationship it has with its audience. After market segmentation theory was developed, people are therefore free to conclude that those who created the adverts did not focus much on the products instead they concentrated on signs and codes with posit ive meanings related to social culture and particular lifestyle. It also depicts that middleclass and social groups in the society struggle to attain wealth; they lead a sophisticated lifestyle similar to the Volvo advert. The ironic part of the advert is, nonetheless, separated from the main product that is being sold. This is what makes the advert open. The second advertisement from the architecture/fashion/design magazine is for a company in Japan marketing Honda Jazz car. This type of advertisement is a good example of a company capitalizing on innovative stereotypes and it depicts the semiotics present in these stereotypes (Chandler 1998, p. 110). The main signifiers in this advert include: penguin classics and the white background of the picture and the light blue colour of the Honda Jazz car which brings out its flourishing nature. There is a muscular man in front of the car putting on pants only to show off his muscularity. It brings out his strength. The man has a sixpence around his neck to show the worth of the car. The bright colour of the car depicts its bright future. Beside the man there is a young woman dressed in bikini attire. She stands in a way that shows off her muscularity. This is to depict that the Honda Jazz car is meant for all types of people; it is fit for both men and women. There is, however, nothing written in the background of the advert. The mode in which the advert is made is enough to sell it off. The advert has been made in a clear way that one can easily tell what it is meant for and the type of audience it is targeted to. The vehicle it itself and the mode of dressing of the man and woman in the picture depicts modernity. Honda Jazz cars usually integrate the connotation of masculinity in cultures that are popular. However, its meaning to the consumers is always gendered with the riddle of menÃ¢â¬â¢s use and its being an automotive brand. This means that this advert is relevant in the 21st century and is relevant for us. Studying the cultural text of the advert, one can easily depict the recessive, overriding and evolving codes structured in the connotation and masculinity myths in the American society (Sless 1986, 122). When viewing the brand audit of the Honda Jazz car advert, one will identify the opportunity of congregating the unmet requirements of male drivers in society. The car is aligned and positioned with classic and model man to communicate modern life, intelligence and adventure while using the car. Similarities and differences Most of the time, producers of the advert may be portraying a different picture with their adverts but the audiences may view it differently; they may or may not view the advert in the same line as that of the producers (Griffin 2000, p. 132) The first advert leave the audiences open to depict their own meaning derived from it. There are many drawings in the picture which the audiences may view or predict their meaning in different ways. However, the Honda Jazz car advert is closed; the audiences or the target group will have the same view and picture of the advert. The Volvo car advert mainly targets wider audience but the Honda Jazz car advert targets few audiences. Those people who can afford the Honda Jazz car are the audience and target group. It is the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s and the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s choice to either own the context or not to own it. Signs are usually joined into texts; however, no meaning is usually derived from the text (Williamson1978, 110). The surrounding is fundamental for an advert. This is what normally draws value from and also from the associated readers. This mixture creates the framework in which the texts function. This, therefore, means that if you have no interest for Volvo or Honda Jazz car, then you will have no clue about what the advert is all about. This gives the reason as to why the context of the message is important. The social state in which sign is employed may establish its proper content and type of coding and sign (Lechte 1994, p. 108). The background function of a sign depicts the context in which it functions. This means that the function of social arrangement in mass media text analysis fluctuates in communal groups. Words normally take the connotation of the context in which they are employed. Mythical meanings The importance of semiotics diminishes based on interpreterÃ¢â¬â¢s skills and knowledge. Semiotics depends greatly on individual skills of an analyst. There was some irony in the Volvo car advert and the producerÃ¢â¬â¢s main intention for doing this was to simply allow certain group of people to understand the concept being portrayed by the advert. These certain codes contained in the advert have an exclusive meaning for specific context which may pass other people who are not keen or who do not have interest on the advert (Barthes1967, p. 120). The connotation of a message is normally affected by outside events in the message. This therefore means that two variables are needed to communicate a meaningful and complete message to the audience. First, the producer must be able to comprehend the content of his message and what it will convey to the audiences. This is what is termed as codes. The second part entails the text: what it is emphasizing while trying to give out the meaning of an advert to the people. All these magazines have reflecting meanings which are greatly emphasized using different colours, drawings and writings. The two magazines are both signs since they have pictures which are appealing to the eyes, the way they are designed and fashioned. However, the Honda Jazz car producer is only appealing to most men and it has codes, perceptions and values of specific culture. This is the same case to the Volvo car advert; however, in this scenario, there are different codes used. The magazines are designed in a way that depicts societal expectations. This means that all magazines are powerful dogma in the society. The Volvo car advert utilise exclusive elements with twisted irony. It, however, suggests the level of intelligence of the society since they will be forced to widen their knowledge to identify whether the message in the advert is aimed at them (Hervey1982, p. 100) This, therefore, means that both the producer of the advert and the reader or the viewer always have some work to do. This is because, the meaning of an advert is always hidden especially in the Volvo car advert; a person has to put efforts to get to know the real meaning. In conclusion, the strategy of carrying out semiotic analysis normally sharpens the clarity and relevance of a brand leaving the target group with a memorable picture. The message being passed by the brand is distilled for example, relating man and machine to show the luxury of the car. The essence of brand is the foundation of formation of developed advertisements for new products and when conducting brand extensions around a central identity. The clients therefore have the potential to extend and recharge their coordinate and current brand message that is passed across the media, markets and different segments. List of references Barthes, R 1967, Elements of Semiology, Jonathan Cape, London. Chandler, D 1998, Semiotics for Beginners, Abya-Yala, Quito, Ecuador. Griffin, E 2000, Communication; a first look at communication theory, McGraw-Hill, New York. Hervey, S 1982, Semiotic Perspectives, George Allen Unwin, London. Kennedy, J 1974, A Psychology of Picture Perception, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. Lechte, J 1994, Fifty Key Contemporary Thinkers: From Structuralism to Postmodernity, Routledge, London. Sless, D 1986, In Search of Semiotics, Croom Helm, London. Williamson, J1978, Decoding Advertisements; Ideology and Meaning in Advertising, Marion Boyars, London. Appendix Ad 1 Ad 2 This essay on Media Power and Post Modernity was written and submitted by user Yuliana Tillman to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
hey essays Throughout our history cities have often been described to be more advanced than other types of communities. The city lifestyle is also often depicted as a superior lifestyle. For these reasons there is usually a push for urbanization in rural and suburban areas. Rural and countryside areas are often categorized as underdeveloped when compared to the city. The Wizard of Oz is meant to dazzle children with witches and Lions, and to provide warmth with a story of the possible. The story suggests the idea that rural areas tend to suppress ones natural abilities, causing certain people to believe that they dont have certain characteristics, or traits. The Wizard of Oz shows us that its not that we lack these traits, but that we are suppressing them and that we do not know that we possesses them. All of the characteristics that each of these three characters lack, are typical deficiencies of inhabitants of rural areas. In the story, Dorothy meets the characters on her way to the Emerald City. Following commonly associated ideas that the city has everything, the characters Dorothy encounters all decide to accompany her in a quest to fill the void in the lives they believe they have. It is on this quest that it becomes apparent that the Scarecrow, Lion and Tin Man do not lack these items, but in fact have them suppressed deep within them. The Lion is introduced as a fierce animal that tries to attack Dorothy on her path. However, he is immediately uncovered to be a coward. The Lion is the ironic choice of being a coward, as he is supposed to be a bully. Seeing as how no one has ever tried to challenge his authority, he believes he would run away in fear if anyone ever did, much like real bullies do. However as the story progresses we see that the Lion isnt the coward he believes he is, as he often shows immense courage in the face of great danger. There are many times throughout ...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
A History of the Elgin Marbles/Parthenon Sculptures The Elgin Marbles are a source of controversy between modern Britain and Greece. Its a collection of stone pieces rescued/removed from the ruins of the Ancient Greek Parthenon in the nineteenth century, and now in demand to be sent back from the British Museum to Greece. In many ways, the Marbles are emblematic of the development of modern ideas of national heritage and global display, which argues that localized regions have the best claim over items produced there. Do the citizens of a modern region have any claim over items produced in that region by people thousands of years ago? There are no easy answers, but many controversial ones. The Elgin Marbles At its broadest, the term Elgin Marbles refers to a collection of stone sculptures and architectural pieces which Thomas Bruce, Seventh Lord Elgin, gathered during his service as ambassador to the court of the Ottoman Sultan in Istanbul. In practice, the term is commonly used to refer to the stone objects he gathered- an official Greek website prefers Ã¢â¬Å"lootedÃ¢â¬ - from Athens between 1801Ã¢â¬â05, particularly those from the Parthenon; these included 247 feet of a frieze. We believe that Elgin took around half of what was surviving at the Parthenon at that time. The Parthenon items are increasingly, and officially, called the Parthenon Sculptures. In Britain Elgin was heavily interested in Greek history and claimed he had the permission of the Ottomans, the people ruling Athens during his service, to gather his collection. After acquiring the marbles, he transported them to Britain, although one shipment sank during transit; it was fully recovered. In 1816, Elgin sold the stones for Ã £35,000, half his estimated costs, and they were acquired by the British Museum in London, but only after a Parliamentary Select Committee- a very high-levelÃ body of inquiry- debated the legality of ElginÃ¢â¬â¢s ownership. Elgin had been attacked by campaigners (then as now) for Ã¢â¬Å"vandalism,Ã¢â¬ but Elgin argued the sculptures would be better cared for in Britain and cited his permissions, documentation which campaigners for the return of the Marbles often now believe supports their claims. The committee allowed the Elgin Marbles to stay in Britain. They are now displayed by the British Museum. The Parthenon Diaspora The Parthenon and its sculptures/marbles have a history which stretches back 2500 years when it was built to honor a goddess called Athena. It has been a Christian church and a Muslim mosque. It has been ruined since 1687 when gunpowder stored inside exploded and attackers bombarded the structure. Over the centuries, the stones which both constituted and adorned the Parthenon had been damaged, especially during the explosion, and many have been removed from Greece. As of 2009, the surviving Parthenon sculptures are divided among museums in eight nations, including the British Museum, the Louvre, the Vatican collection, and a new, purpose-built museum in Athens. The majority of the Parthenon Sculptures are split evenly between London and Athens. Greece Pressure for the return of the marbles to Greece has been growing, and since the 1980s the Greek government has officially asked for them to be permanently repatriated. They argue that the marbles are a prime piece of Greek heritage and were removed with the permission of what was effectively a foreign government, as Greek independence only occurred a few years after Elgin was collecting. They also argue that the British Museum has no legal right to the sculptures. Arguments that Greece had nowhere to adequately display the marbles because they canÃ¢â¬â¢t be satisfactorily replaced in Parthenon have been made null and void by the creation of a new Ã £115 million Acropolis Museum with a floor recreating the Parthenon. In addition, massive works to restore and stabilize the Parthenon and the Acropolis have been, and are being, carried out. The British MuseumÃ¢â¬â¢s Response The British Museum has basically said no to the Greeks. Their official position, as given on their website in 2009, is: Ã¢â¬Å"The British MuseumÃ¢â¬â¢s Trustees argue that the Parthenon Sculptures are integral to the MuseumÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose as a world museum telling the story of human cultural achievement. Here GreeceÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural links with the other great civilizations of the ancient world, especially Egypt, Assyria, Persia, and Rome can be clearly seen, and the vital contribution of ancient Greece to the development of later cultural achievements in Europe, Asia, and Africa can be followed and understood. The current division of the surviving sculptures between museums in eight countries, with about equal quantities present in Athens and London, allows different and complementary stories to be told about them, focusing respectively on their importance for the history of Athens and Greece, and their significance for world culture. This, the MuseumÃ¢â¬â¢s Trustees believe, is an arrangement that gives maximum public benefit for the world at large and affirms the universal nature of the Gree k legacy.Ã¢â¬ The British Museum has also claimed they have a right to keep the Elgin Marbles because they effectively saved them from further damage. Ian Jenkins was quoted by the BBC, while associated with the British Museum, as saying Ã¢â¬Å"If Lord Elgin did not act as he did, the sculptures would not survive as they do. And the proof of that as a fact is merely to look at the things that were left behind in Athens.Ã¢â¬ Yet the British Museum has also admitted that the sculptures were damaged by Ã¢â¬Å"heavy-handedÃ¢â¬ cleaning, although the precise level of damage is disputed by campaigners in Britain and Greece. Pressure continues to build, and as we live in a celebrity-driven world, some have weighed in. George Clooney and his wife Amal are the most high profile celebrities to call for the marbles to be sent to Greece, and his comments received what is, perhaps, best described as a mixed reaction in Europe. The marbles are far from the only item in a museum which another country would like back, but they are among the best known, and many people resistant to their transfer fear the complete dissolution of the western museum world should the floodgates be open. In 2015, the Greek government declined to take legal action over the marbles, interpreted as a sign that there is no legal right behind Greek demands.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Through the Years - from High School to Adulthood - Article Example During those times we had very little worries. Sometimes we thought school work was hard, but we learned in the future that it only gets more challenging during and after the college years. I remember that college was a hot topic of discussion in the last year of high school. We supported each other a lot and the advice of our friends provided great input to help us decide what to study and at which university. Throughout the years our friendship and comradery have not changed. We still care a lot about each other. Social friendship sites such as Facebook have helped a lot of us keep in touch. I like going to our high school page on Facebook to see old pictures of when we were back in high school. I phone call a lot of old high school classmates at least once a month. High school helps built lasting relationships. Over the years we have had many mini-reunions and get together. High school reunions help people renew old friendships (Lamb & Reeder). Some of our reunions have been very successful, but in others, attendance has been low. Even those that donÃ¢â¬â¢t attend always get a taste of what occurred in the event since it is customary for us to send everyone several videos and photos of the eventÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. There is a log with the emails of all the members of the 1987 graduation class. All classmates are notified of special events such as reunions. During the last 25 years, t he class has held at least one activity every three years. On some years we have had more than one activity. Another medium that was introduced about three years ago was a forum created by one of the classmates who specializes in programming and designing websites. The forum is a great way for us to talk and leave messages for all of us to share. We never forget of any of our friends. Some of the members never attend the activities of the class of 1987 and some are not users of Facebook. We never forget about any of the girls.